In the US:Robots have begun to replace missing employees in restaurants
In the US:Robots have begun to replace missing employees in restaurants

After months of waiting for employees to return to work, some businesses come to their senses, writes Inchider.

As of June, only 10% of busy jobs in the United States have an urgent need for employment, according to a study by India. Whether it’s because of the worries about the child, look after the children, enough savings or the additional benefits for unemployment, the unemployed are not happy.

And here comes the QR code. The technology that helps the customers to save the needs of the customer, which is to give the menu to the customers, is based on the current wave. There are other signs that the workers will replace the hopa, at least in the pestopanite.

Because of this, some of them are starting to turn to technology, with which to replace some of the employees.

Srasker Varrel has a mobile application, with which customers can pay for drinks and drinks from their customers; MSDonald has started to run automated car ranges at 10 locations in Chicago; Dave & Wuter plans to expand the possibilities.

Use it clearly. Automated solutions are often a one-time investment and increase productivity. They don’t need special bonuses, just to start work.

Economic data suggest that the trend has intensified over the past few months. Productivity fell by 5.4% in the first quarter of 2021 – the fastest pace in 20 years.

Businesses that are starting to adopt new technologies do not believe that workers will replace them.

On the other hand, people have long feared that new technologies will destroy many jobs and increase wages. This type of thinking is summarized by the term Lydia – a social movement in the United Kingdom from the first years of the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century. The workers, part of it, are destroying the machines that have taken their jobs.

Are the technologies bad? The utilization of technological innovations has increased productivity over the last few hundred years of economic history. It is the higher productivity that gives employees the opportunity to pay higher wages. The higher rewards also increase economic activity, which increases the market share of the market.

Economist Hoa Smith writes that in the previous period of innovations – since the Indian Revolution – we have not destroyed jobs, but.

Secret Behind Jupiter’s “Energy Crisis” Revealed – Puzzled Astronomers for Decades
Secret Behind Jupiter’s “Energy Crisis” Revealed – Puzzled Astronomers for Decades
Jupiter Atmospheric Heating

Jupiter is shown in visible light for context underneath an artistic impression of the Jovian upper atmosphere’s infrared glow. The brightness of this upper atmosphere layer corresponds to temperatures, from hot to cold, in this order: white, yellow, bright red and lastly, dark red. The aurorae are the hottest regions and the image shows how heat may be carried by winds away from the aurora and cause planet-wide heating. Credit: J. O’Donoghue (JAXA)/Hubble/NASA/ESA/A. Simon/J. Schmidt

New research published in Nature has revealed the solution to Jupiter’s “energy crisis,” which has puzzled astronomers for decades.

Space scientists at the University of Leicester worked with colleagues from the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA), Boston University, NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT) to reveal the mechanism behind Jupiter’s atmospheric heating.

Now, using data from the Keck Observatory in Hawai’i, astronomers have created the most-detailed yet global map of the gas giant’s upper atmosphere, confirming for the first time that Jupiter’s powerful aurorae are responsible for delivering planet-wide heating.

Dr. James O’Donoghue is a researcher at JAXA and completed his PhD at Leicester, and is lead author for the research paper. He said:

“We first began trying to create a global heat map of Jupiter’s uppermost atmosphere at the University of Leicester. The signal was not bright enough to reveal anything outside of Jupiter’s polar regions at the time, but with the lessons learned from that work we managed to secure time on one of the largest, most competitive telescopes on Earth some years later.

“Using the Keck telescope we produced temperature maps of extraordinary detail. We found that temperatures start very high within the aurora, as expected from previous work, but now we could observe that Jupiter’s aurora, despite taking up less than 10% of the area of the planet, appear to be heating the whole thing.

“This research started in Leicester and carried on at Boston University and NASA before ending at JAXA in Japan. Collaborators from each continent working together made this study successful, combined with data from NASA’s Juno spacecraft in orbit around Jupiter and JAXA’s Hisaki spacecraft, an observatory in space.”

Dr. Tom Stallard and Dr. Henrik Melin are both part of the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Leicester. Dr. Stallard added:

“There has been a very long-standing puzzle in the thin atmosphere at the top of every Giant Planet within our solar system. With every Jupiter space mission, along with ground-based observations, over the past 50 years, we have consistently measured the equatorial temperatures as being much too hot.

“This ‘energy crisis’ has been a long standing issue – do the models fail to properly model how heat flows from the aurora, or is there some other unknown heat source near the equator?

“This paper describes how we have mapped this region in unprecedented detail and have shown that, at Jupiter, the equatorial heating is directly associated with auroral heating.”

Aurorae occur when charged particles are caught in a planet’s magnetic field. These spiral along the field lines towards the planet’s magnetic poles, striking atoms and molecules in the atmosphere to release light and energy.

On Earth, this leads to the characteristic light show that forms the Aurora Borealis and Australis. At Jupiter, the material spewing from its volcanic moon, Io, leads to the most powerful aurora in the Solar System and enormous heating in the polar regions of the planet.

Although the Jovian aurorae have long been a prime candidate for heating the planet’s atmosphere, observations have previously been unable to confirm or deny this until now.

Previous maps of the upper atmospheric temperature were formed using images consisting of only several pixels. This is not enough resolution to see how the temperature might be changed across the planet, providing few clues as to the origin of the extra heat.

Researchers created five maps of the atmospheric temperature at different spatial resolutions, with the highest resolution map showing an average temperature measurement for squares two degrees longitude ‘high’ by two degrees latitude ‘wide’.

The team scoured more than 10,000 individual data points, only mapping points with an uncertainty of less than five percent.

Models of the atmospheres of gas giants suggest that they work like a giant refrigerator, with heat energy drawn from the equator towards the pole, and deposited in the lower atmosphere in these pole regions.

These new findings suggest that fast-changing aurorae may drive waves of energy against this poleward flow, allowing heat to reach the equator.

Observations also showed a region of localized heating in the sub-auroral region that could be interpreted as a limited wave of heat propagating equatorward, which could be interpreted as evidence of the process driving heat transfer.

Planetary research at the University of Leicester spans the breadth of Jovian system, from the planet’s magnetosphere and atmosphere, out to its diverse collection of satellites.

Leicester researchers are members of the Juno mission made up of a global team astronomers observing the giant planet, and are leading Jupiter observations from the forthcoming James Webb Space Telescope. Leicester also plays a leading role in science and instrumentation on the European Space Agency (ESA)’s Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE), due for launch in 2022.

Reference: “Global upper-atmospheric heating on Jupiter by the polar aurorae” by J. O’Donoghue, L. Moore, T. Bhakyapaibul, H. Melin, T. Stallard, J. E. P. Connerney and C. Tao, 4 August 2021, Nature.
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-021-03706-w

New research published in Nature has revealed the solution to Jupiter’s ‘energy crisis’, which has puzzled astronomers for decades.

Free New AI Tools Accelerate Functional Electronic Materials Discovery
Free New AI Tools Accelerate Functional Electronic Materials Discovery
New AI-based Tools to Accelerate Functional Electronic Materials Discovery

Using machine-learning tools, the scientists identified important features to characterize materials that exhibit a metal-insulator transition. Credit: Northwestern University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The work could allow scientists to accelerate the discovery of materials showing a metal-insulator transition.

An interdisciplinary team of scientists from Northwestern Engineering and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology has used artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to build new, free, and easy-to-use tools that allow scientists to accelerate the rate of discovery and study of materials that exhibit a metal-insulator transition (MIT), as well as identify new features that can describe this class of materials.

One of the keys to making microelectronic devices faster and more energy efficient, as well as designing new computer architectures, is the discovery of new materials with tunable electronic properties. The electrical resistivity of MITs may exhibit metallic or insulating electronic behavior, depending on the properties of the environment.

Although some materials that exhibit MITs have already been implemented in electronic devices, only fewer than 70 with this property are known, and even fewer exhibit the performance necessary for integration into new electronic devices. Further, these materials switch electrically due to a variety of mechanisms, which makes obtaining a general understanding of this class of materials difficult.

“By providing a database, online classifier, and new set of features, our work opens new pathways to the understanding and discovery in this class of materials,” said James Rondinelli, Morris E. Fine Professor in Materials and Manufacturing at the McCormick School of Engineering and the study’s corresponding primary investigator. “Further, this work can be used by other scientists and applied to other material classes to accelerate the discovery and understanding of other classes of quantum materials.”

“One of the key elements of our tools and models is that they are accessible to a wide audience; scientists and engineers don’t need to understand machine learning to use them, just as one doesn’t need a deep understanding of search algorithms to navigate the internet,” said Alexandru Georgescu, postdoctoral researcher in the Rondinelli lab who is the study’s first co-author.

The team presented its research in the paper “Database, Features, and Machine Learning Model to Identify Thermally Driven Metal–Insulator Transition Compounds,” published on July 6, 2021, in the academic journal Chemistry of Materials

Daniel Apley, professor of industrial engineering and management sciences at Northwestern Engineering, was a co-primary investigator. Elsa A. Olivetti, Esther and Harold E. Edgerton Associate Professor in Materials Science and Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was also a co-primary investigator.

Using their existing knowledge of MIT materials, combined with Natural Language Processing (NLP), the researchers scoured existing literature to identify the 60 known MIT compounds, as well as 300 materials that are similar in chemical composition but do not show an MIT. The team has provided the resulting materials – as well as features it’s identified as relevant – to scientists as a freely available database for public use.

Then using machine-learning tools, the scientists identified important features to characterize these materials. They confirmed the importance of certain features, such as the distances between transition metal ions or the electrostatic repulsion between some of them known, as well as the accuracy of the model. They also identified new, previously underappreciated features, such as how different the atoms are in size from each other, or measures of how ionic or covalent the inter-atomic bonds are. These features were found to be critical in developing a reliable machine learning model for MIT materials, which has been packaged into an openly accessible format.

“This free tool allows anyone to quickly obtain probabilistic estimates on whether the material they are studying is a metal, insulator, or a metal-insulator transition compound,” Apley said.

Reference: “Database, Features, and Machine Learning Model to Identify Thermally Driven Metal–Insulator Transition Compounds” by Alexandru B. Georgescu, Peiwen Ren, Aubrey R. Toland, Shengtong Zhang, Kyle D. Miller, Daniel W. Apley, Elsa A. Olivetti, Nicholas Wagner and James M. Rondinelli, 6 July 2021, Chemistry of Materials.
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.1c00905

Work on this study was born from projects within the Predictive Science and Engineering Design (PS&ED) interdisciplinary cluster program sponsored by The Graduate School at Northwestern. The study was also supported by funding from the Designing Materials to Revolutionize and Engineer our Future (DMREF) program of the National Science Foundation and the Advanced Research Projects Agency – Energy’s (ARPA-E) DIFFERENTIATE program, which seeks to use emerging AI technologies to tackle major energy and environmental challenges.

Scientists have determined why Mercury has such a large core
Scientists have determined why Mercury has such a large core

A new study has emerged where scientists have presented a new explanation for the large core of Mercury. This is not related to collisions during the formation of the solar system.

The new study refutes the hypothesis of why Mercury has a large core compared to the mantle (the layer between the planet’s core and crust). For decades, scientists believed that as a result of collisions with other bodies during the formation of our solar system, much of Mercury’s rocky mantle collapsed, leaving a large, dense, metallic core inside. But new research shows that collisions are not to blame – solar magnetism is to blame.

William McDonough, professor of geology at the University of Maryland, and Takashi Yoshizaki of Tohoku University developed a model showing that the density, mass, and iron content of a rocky planet’s core depends on its distance from the sun’s magnetic field. An article describing the discovery appeared in the journal Progress in Earth and Planetary Science.

“The four planets in our solar system — Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars — are made up of varying proportions of metal and stone,” McDonough said. – There is a tendency for the metal content in the core to decrease as the planets move away from the Sun. Our paper explains how this happened by showing that the distribution of raw materials in the early forming solar system was controlled by the sun’s magnetic field. ”

McDonough’s new model shows that during the early formation of the solar system, when the young Sun was surrounded by a swirling cloud of dust and gas, iron grains were pulled toward the center by the Sun’s magnetic field. When planets closer to the Sun began to form from clumps of this dust and gas, they included more iron in their cores than those that were farther away.

The researchers found that the density and proportion of iron in the core of a rocky planet correlates with the strength of the magnetic field around the sun during planet formation. In a new study, they suggest that magnetism should be factored into future attempts to describe the composition of rocky planets, including those outside our solar system.

The composition of a planet’s core is important to its potential to support life. On Earth, for example, a molten iron core creates a magnetosphere that protects the planet from cancer-causing cosmic rays. The core also contains most of the phosphorus, an essential nutrient for maintaining carbon-based life.

Using existing models of planetary formation, McDonough determined the rate at which gas and dust were being pulled into the center of our solar system during its formation. He took into account the magnetic field that the sun should have generated when it appeared, and calculated how this magnetic field would pull iron through a cloud of dust and gas.

New Insights Into How Central Supermassive Black Holes Influence the Evolution of Their Host Galaxy
New Insights Into How Central Supermassive Black Holes Influence the Evolution of Their Host Galaxy

Galaxy Universe Concept

Emirati national Aisha Al Yazeedi, a research scientist at the NYU Abu Dhabi (NYUAD) Center for Astro, Particle, and Planetary Physics, has published her first research paper, featuring some key findings on the evolution of galaxies.

Galaxies eventually undergo a phase in which they lose most of their gas, which results in a change into their properties over the course of their evolution. Current models for galaxy evolution suggest this should eventually happen to all galaxies, including our own Milky Way; Al Yazeedi and her team are delving into this process.

Blob Source Extracted From DESI

Composite RGB image of the Blob Source extracted from the DESI Legacy Imaging Surveys (Dey et al.(2019), legacysurvey.org). MaNGA _eld of view is shown in orange. Gray box corresponds to the GMOS _eld of view. Credit: Dey et al.(2019), legacysurvey.org

Commenting on the findings, Al Yazeedi said: “The evolution of galaxies is directly linked to the activity of their central supermassive black hole (SMBH). However, the connection between the activity of SMBHs and the ejection of gas from the entire galaxy is poorly understood. Observational studies, including our research, are essential to clarify how the central SMBH can influence the evolution of its entire host galaxy and prove key theoretical concepts in the field of astrophysics.”

Titled “The impact of low luminosity AGN on their host galaxies: A radio and optical investigation of the kpc-scale outflow in MaNGA 1-166919,” the paper has been published in Astronomical Journal. Its findings outline gas ejection mechanisms, outflow properties, and how they are related to the activity of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the center of the host galaxy.

To that end, the paper presents a detailed optical and radio study of the MaNGA 1-166919 galaxy, which appears to have an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN). Radio morphology shows two lobes (jets) emanating from the center of the galaxy, a clear sign of AGN activity that could be driving the optical outflow. By measuring the outflow properties, the NYUAD researchers documented how the extent of the optical outflow matches the extent of radio emission.

MzLS Image Isophotes

Superposition of optical z-band MzLS image isophotes (gray color) and our highest spatial resolution radio image in S band (in blue). Optical image has a spatial resolution of 0:0084, while S-band radio data { 0:009. Credit: NYU Abu Dhabi

Al Yazeedi is a member of NYUAD’s Kawader program, a national capacity-building research fellowship that allows outstanding graduates to gain experience in cutting-edge academic research. The three-year, individually tailored, intensive program is designed for graduates considering a graduate degree or a career in research.

Her paper adds to the growing body of UAE space research and activities. The UAE has sent an Emirati into space, a spacecraft around Mars, and recently announced plans to send a robotic rover to the Moon in 2022, ahead of the ultimate goal to build a city on Mars by 2117.

GMOS Outflow Map

The above figure is a GMOS outflow map with radio contours overlaid in black. The outflow velocities show a clear spatial separation of “red” and “blue” components. It strongly suggests a biconical outflow and nicely shows the correspondence between the optical outflow and radio emission. Credit: NYU Abu Dhabi

Emirati women are playing a key role in the research and development behind these projects. The Mars Hope probe science team, which is 80 percent female, was led by Sarah Al Amiri, Minister of State for Advanced Sciences and chairperson of the country’s space agency.

Reference: “The impact of low luminosity AGN on their host galaxies: A radio and optical investigation of the kpc-scale outflow in MaNGA 1-166919” 3 August 2021, Astronomical Journal.
DOI: 10.3847/1538-4357/abf5e1

New Algorithm Flies Drones Faster Than World-Class Human Racing Pilots
New Algorithm Flies Drones Faster Than World-Class Human Racing Pilots
Drone Flying Through Smoke

A drone flying through smoke to visualize the complex aerodynamic effects. Credit: Robotics and Perception Group, University of Zurich

To be useful, drones need to be quick. Because of their limited battery life, they must complete whatever task they have — searching for survivors on a disaster site, inspecting a building, delivering cargo — in the shortest possible time. And they may have to do it by going through a series of waypoints like windows, rooms, or specific locations to inspect, adopting the best trajectory and the right acceleration or deceleration at each segment.

Algorithm outperforms professional pilots

The best human drone pilots are very good at doing this and have so far always outperformed autonomous systems in drone racing. Now, a research group at the University of Zurich (UZH) has created an algorithm that can find the quickest trajectory to guide a quadrotor — a drone with four propellers — through a series of waypoints on a circuit. “Our drone beat the fastest lap of two world-class human pilots on an experimental race track,” says Davide Scaramuzza, who heads the Robotics and Perception Group at UZH and the Rescue Robotics Grand Challenge of the NCCR Robotics, which funded the research.

“The novelty of the algorithm is that it is the first to generate time-optimal trajectories that fully consider the drones’ limitations,” says Scaramuzza. Previous works relied on simplifications of either the quadrotor system or the description of the flight path, and thus they were sub-optimal. “The key idea is, rather than assigning sections of the flight path to specific waypoints, that our algorithm just tells the drone to pass through all waypoints, but not how or when to do that,” adds Philipp Foehn, PhD student and first author of the paper.

External cameras provide position information in real-time

The researchers had the algorithm and two human pilots fly the same quadrotor through a race circuit. They employed external cameras to precisely capture the motion of the drones and — in the case of the autonomous drone — to give real-time information to the algorithm on where the drone was at any moment. To ensure a fair comparison, the human pilots were given the opportunity to train on the circuit before the race. But the algorithm won: all its laps were faster than the human ones, and the performance was more consistent. This is not surprising, because once the algorithm has found the best trajectory it can reproduce it faithfully many times, unlike human pilots.

Before commercial applications, the algorithm will need to become less computationally demanding, as it now takes up to an hour for the computer to calculate the time-optimal trajectory for the drone. Also, at the moment, the drone relies on external cameras to compute where it was at any moment. In future work, the scientists want to use onboard cameras. But the demonstration that an autonomous drone can in principle fly faster than human pilots is promising. “This algorithm can have huge applications in package delivery with drones, inspection, search and rescue, and more,” says Scaramuzza.

Reference: 21 July 2021, Science Robotics.
DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.abh1221