India, Like US, Must Have A Clear Tibet Policy to Counter China
Following the standoff in eastern Ladakh including the clash in Galwan which marked the most precipitous decline in India-China bilateral relations in the last 40 years, India has not been able to develop a strategy to offset Beijing’s periodic coercion along the Line of Actual Control (LAC).
India has taken tentative steps with the United States and other allies to balance China, but these have not generated dissuasion or deterrence.
India’s Foreign Minister Dr S Jaishankar says that China has reneged on agreements and protocols to unilaterally alter LAC, and given five differing explanations for deploying troops on the border.
If this is not sufficient reason for India to reciprocally renege on its recognition of Tibet as an Autonomous Region of China — early warning on which New Delhi had begun signalling in 2010 when it stopped mentioning the ‘One China’ policy in official documents and joint statements — there is more.
Is Tibet Issue A ‘Usable’ Card?
So, is Tibet a usable card — and is India able and willing to face a Chinese riposte given the disputed border and acute power asymmetry?
India’s boundary dispute is intrinsically linked to Tibet. New Delhi’s recognition of Chinese sovereignty over Tibet was contingent upon China’s acceptance of Tibetan autonomy. The Dalai Lama gave up the quest for independence in exchange for genuine autonomy within China. Beijing has squashed autonomy and not kept its side of the bargain with Tibet and China.
India Did Nothing When China Invaded Tibet
He said India should be prepared to occupy the plateau and keep friendship and cooperation of the people of the frontier from Nepal to Naga Hills, especially Nepal.
Not only did India do nothing when China invaded Tibet but in 1954 agreed to designate Tibet as an autonomous region of China.
The Panchsheel Treaty ushered in short-lived era of Hindi-Chini Bhai Bhai and New Delhi unilaterally, and without any quid pro quo removed its political and commercial rights over Tibet, vacating the Counsel General at Lhasa and trading marts at Gyantse, Yatung and Gartok along with their military detachments. A Sino-Tibet conflict was by default turned into Sino-Indian.
Recalling this strategic blunder is crying over spilled milk.
Can damage be mitigated at this late stage when possession is nine-tenths of the law and claim? Dutch scholar and historian, Michael van Walt, who is backed by a team of 100 researchers who have been studying Tibet for decades, says it is worth giving it a shot.
Walt is legal advisor to the Central Tibet Administration in Dharamsala and author of a seminal book ‘Tibet Was Never Part of China But The Middle Way Approach Remains a Viable Solution’ and his latest, ‘Freedom Brief 2020’.
India Must Completely Stop Saying That Tibet Is A Part Of China
- a) Tibet was never part of imperial China or the Mongol empire
- b) Illegal occupation through invasion, misrepresentation of facts and altering narrative do not provide legitimacy
- c) Indo-Tibetan border was resolved in 1914 by the MacMahon Line and ratified by Tibet
- d) Tibet was a buffer state between India and China
- e) Tibetans are not a minority of the Chinese
- f) China enjoyed suzerainty, never sovereignty over Tibet
- g) The Dalai Lama had traded suzerainty for autonomy
- h) Tibetans can call for self-determination after China ends its occupation of Tibet
In 2017, Arunachal Pradesh Chief Minister Pema Khandu said that his state has a border with Tibet, not China. In Step Three, India should formally recognise the Dalai Lama as a proud son of India and award him the Bharat Ratna. He should be extended all State privileges and courtesies and be free to travel all across India including Arunachal Pradesh.
Beijing should be advised to restart dialogue with the Dalai Lama and not interfere with the selection of his successor, which is entirely the Dalai Lama’s prerogative.
Former PM Shastri Had Said That India Would Recognise Tibet Govt In Exile
In 1965, Prime Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri had said India would recognise the Tibet Government in Exile (now CTA) but he died prematurely — a historical fact that should be made public.
Panchsheel Marg in front of the Chinese Embassy in New Delhi should be renamed the Dalai Lama Marg.
Why Tibet Issue Must Be Internationalised
India can also take up Tibet at UNHRC over suppression of religious and cultural freedoms and violation of human rights. Discussions on Tibet that are held behind closed doors and almost sinfully, should be open to public and media.
Track I and Track 1.5 dialogues on Tibet can start in collaboration with CTA, Tibetan institutes abroad and Friends of Tibet worldwide. Studies on Tibetan Buddhism and culture should be introduced in the syllabi of universities and think tanks. China’s perfidy in instigating the 1962 border war needs to be exposed.
Steps 1 to 3 can be calibrated by government and non-government institutions. These measures should be coordinated with Friends of Tibet in Europe and US who have been accusing China of grave human rights violations in Tibet. The US Administration under Trump has been most active in targeting China over its omissions and commissions in Tibet with legislative acts like the US Reciprocal Access to Tibet Act 2018. It recently appointed its special envoy on Tibet, Robert Destro, and the State Department invited head of CTA, Lobsang Sangay, to meet Mr Destro — for the first time in six decades, which infuriated Beijing.
No wonder President Xi Jinping is taking special interest in the controlling and monitoring of Tibet, saying China should build an impregnable fortress in Tibet and dig out facts that link Tibet to China for their impact on the boundary dispute with India.
It is this new Great Wall that India must start to ‘breach’. India has to take the lead in Tibet’s cause and the time to act is now.